Tuesday, April 17, 2012

Sor Juana de la Cruz: Nun who loved a countess in 17th-century Mexico City

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
By Lewis Williams, SFO trinitystores.com

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was a 17th-century Mexican nun whose critically acclaimed writings include lesbian love poetry. She is considered one of the greatest Latin American poets and an early advocate of women’s rights. Her feast day is April 17.

Sor Juana (Nov. 12, 1648 - April 17, 1695) was born out of wedlock near Mexico City in what was then New Spain. She was a witty, intellectually gifted girl who loved learning. Girls of her time were rarely educated, but she learned to read in her grandfather’s book-filled house.

When she was 16, she asked her parents’ permission to disguise herself as a male student in order to attend university, which did not accept women. They refused, and instead she entered the convent in 1667. In her world, the convent was the only place where a woman could pursue education.

Sor Juana’s convent cell became Mexico City’s intellectual hub. Instead of an ascetic room, Sor Juana had a suite that was like a modern apartment. Her library contained an estimated 4,000 books, the largest collection in Mexico. The following portrait from 1750 shows her in her amazing library, surrounded by her many books.

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Miguel Cabrera, 1750 (Wikimedia Commons)

She turned her nun’s quarters into a salon, visited by the city’s intellectual elite. Among them was Countess Maria Luisa de Paredes, vicereine of Mexico. The two women became passionate friends. It’s unclear whether they were lesbians by today’s definition, but Maria Luisa inspired Sor Juana to write amorous love poems, such as:

That you’re a woman far away
is no hindrance to my love:
for the soul, as you well know,
distance and sex don’t count.

Click here for more of Sor Juana’s lesbian poems in English and Spanish.

The romance between Sor Juana and Maria Luisa continues to be an inspiration for contemporary writers. Poet and Chicano studies scholar Alicia Gaspar de Alba writes about it vividly in her novel “Sor Juana’s Second Dream.” The novel became the basis for the play “The Nun and the Countess” by Odalys Nanín.

Church authorities cracked down on Sor Juana, not because of her lesbian poetry, but for “La Respuesta,” her classic defense of women’s rights in response to opposition from the clergy. Threatened by the Inquisition, Sor Juana was silenced for the final three years of her life. At age 46, she died after taking care of her sisters in an outbreak of plague.

She is not recognized as a saint by the male-dominated church hierarchy that she criticized, but Sor Juana holds a place in the informal communion of saints honored by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people of faith and our allies.

The icon above was painted by Colorado artist Lewis Williams of the Secular Franciscan Order (SFO). Sor Juana sits between Mexico City’s two volcanoes, the male Popocatépetl and the female Iztaccíhuatl, symbolizing the conflict between men and women that she experienced in trying to get an education. She holds a book with a quote from her writings: “The most unforgivable crime is to place people’s stature in doubt.”

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This post is part of the GLBT Saints series at the Jesus in Love Blog. Saints and holy people of special interest to gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and our allies are covered on appropriate dates throughout the year.


Icons of Sor Juana de la Cruz and many others are available on cards, plaques, T-shirts, mugs, candles, mugs, and more at Trinity Stores




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5 comments:

Trudie said...

After reading your blog post on Sor Juana a year ago, I ordered the book "Sor Juana's Second Dream". I reviewed it for Amazon, saying in part:

"We are foolish if we pretend that the "authority" of the structures that organized Christianity has built over time does not in fact continue to oppress the spirits of those called to a life of intellectual honesty and passionate love. I would strongly recommend this book to anyone who is struggling to find true integrity of mind and spirit."

Somehow this seems to fit very well with your recent post about the Gay Seminarians. Although none of those who visit Amazon reviews seem to have found my comments helpful, I DO find this post extremely relevant. Thanks again.

Kittredge Cherry said...

Believe it or not, it’s been TWO years since I blogged about Sor Juana. Last year her feast day fell too close to Easter. This year I added the wonderful painting of her in her library. I love seeing her with her many books. And Trudie, thanks for the info on the book “Sor Juana’s Second Dream.” I just zipped over to Amazon and clicked to tell them that your review there was helpful.

William D. Lindsey said...

Fascinating, Kittredge. I've read some of Sor Juana's poems, but had no real knowledge of her life. Now you make me want to go and find that book of her work on my shelves and read it all over again! Thank you for this.

Trudie said...

I stand corrected, Kitt -- the date on the review was indeed in May, 2010, and it's now 2012. I'm only off by a year...Actually, that was BEFORE I started doing the Amazon Vine reviews, which is why I couldn't find it in my file of those and had to go back to the "original". How time flies when you're having fun!

Kittredge Cherry said...

It’s always fun to discover a treasure that is already on your own bookshelf, hiding in plain sight. Happy reading! And thanks, Bill and Trudie, for taking time to comment.